2010 Annual Report
Canadian Forces Provost Marshal's Message
Colonel Tim Grubb, C.D.
Canadian Forces Provost Marshal
2010 was both a busy and a proud time to be a member of the Military Police (MP), as the year illustrated the wide spectrum of policing roles our deployed cadre of MP fulfill in operations both at home and abroad. As commanders recognized the police skills that the MP possess, they continued to rely upon our members to achieve mission success with new tasks in support of ongoing operations.
On the international front, not only did we sustain our engagement with Joint Task Force Afghanistan, but we took on further responsibilities at the Regional Training Centre – Kandahar (RTC-K). The RTC-K trains Afghan Uniformed Police in basic skills, with Afghan National Police, Canadian MP and Combat Arms personnel. Operation HESTIA demonstrated our flexibility by quickly deploying more than 80 MP members from the three environments to help the task force that provided humanitarian assistance to Haiti after the earthquake. MP also provided support to operations at sea, more precisely Canadian Forces (CF) counter-piracy operations off the Horn of Africa.
On the domestic front, two large-scale operations, Op PODIUM and CADENCE, in which the CF assisted the RCMP in providing security for the Olympics and the G8 and G20 Summits, included sizeable MP components well-suited for types of tasks. As well, an unforecasted deployment (Op LAMA) saw MP members participate in CF efforts in Newfoundland following Hurricane Igor.
This year, we witnessed the creation of not only a new national security campaign, but also a Director Defence Security (DDS) external to the CFPM organization; this clearly shows the importance that the senior CF leadership place on security. The DDS, or Departmental Security Officer (DSO), is a colonel MP officer who reports directly to the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS).
New branding and visual identity standards were also adopted by the MP, under the theme “Canada’s Frontline Police Service”.
The Minister of National Defence, the Honourable Peter MacKay, announced infrastructure projects at Canadian Forces Base Borden, including a new Canadian Forces Military Police Academy (CFMPA). I look forward to improved facilities to train our MP and MP Officers, both Regular and Reserve.
Once again many MP members were honoured with numerous commendations and awards. I wish to highlight in particular, Master Corporal Richard Anderson who was awarded the Medal of Military Valour, and Sergeant Peter Thompson who received the Ontario Provincial Police Commissioner Commendation. Theses types of recognition reflect the quality of the men and women serving within the MP Branch.
Today, I am preparing to assume command of all MP involved in policing duties on 1 April 2011. This Canadian Forces initiative will reinforce my authority, allow for greater efficiencies in providing MP services and will ultimately serve to strengthen the military justice system; through all of these changes, the MP first priority must always remain to support commanders in the conduct of CF operations.
I am immensely proud to be the Canadian Forces Provost Marshal (CFPM) and the Commander of the Canadian Forces.
Military Police Group (CF MP Gp). As the Group Chief Warrant Officer and I travel the country on visits to the MP establishments, we are very encouraged by the positive attitude of the MP personnel and their determination to provide quality service. In the same vein, your current commanders have consistently commented positively on the high level of support they are receiving from the MP. Keep up the good work!
Policing in Canada and Abroad
Corporal Matthew Mooney, Dundurn Military Police Detachment,
gives a demonstration at the Kandahar Regional Training Centre.
The role of the Canadian Forces Military Police members is to
mentor the Afghan National Police instructors as they deliver the
training. - (Photo by Corporal Shilo Adamson, Canadian Forces
Petty Officer, 2nd class Mary Blois, Military Police member
aboard Her Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Athabaskan, gives a
high five to the kids at the orphanage in Leogane, Haiti, on
22 January 2010. (Photo by Corporal Johanie Maheu)
As a directorate within the CFPM organization, the Deputy Provost Marshal (DPM) Police is tasked with four primary lines of activity: policy, records management, response to access to information and privacy requests and strategic criminal intelligence. In 2010, DPM Police has seen advancements in each of these areas.
DPM Police is the focal point of police policy for the MP Branch. In addition to providing the policy framework that enables the MP to operate on a daily basis, DPM Police staff stays abreast of policing developments, ensuring that the MP Branch policies and procedures remain relevant with the changing times. Policy must keep pace with ongoing changes in order to provide the highest level of service to the people, and to ensure the risk involved with conducting highrisk policing operations is understood and mitigated.
Cpl James Foster stands watch during a visit by Her Majesty
the Queen during her visit to Winnipeg in June 2010.
Over the course of 2010, DPM Police staff, with the support of the VCDS Group, has continued to work with the Information Management Group (IM Gp) to renew the Security and Military Police Information System (SAMPIS) infrastructure and software. One major milestone was achieved on 10 April 2010 when the MP went live with SAMPIS 7.0, which superseded version 6.3, and replaced many major SAMPIS server components located at CFB Borden with new hardware located at CFB Borden. The upgrade has enabled DPM Police to start providing its crime statistics to the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics starting in January 2011.
DPM Police is responsible for maintaining a strategic criminal intelligence capability for the MP Branch. At the strategic level, DPM Police monitors a broad range of internal and external crime indicators, conducting threat assessments and strategic analysis of focused high-risk areas. The Military Police Criminal Intelligence Program produces strategic products which proactively identify criminal threats and provide commanders with the situational awareness needed to take appropriate action. Many of the SAMPIS upgrades will facilitate intelligence-led policing as they are implemented.
The operational tempo in 2010 for MP members in the Air Force (AF) was unprecedented. AF MP members, tactical aircraft security officers (TASOs) and air marshals continued to be busy in support of air operations in Afghanistan, while providing police and security services in support of domestic operations during the 2010 Winter Olympics as well as contributing to international operations bringing disaster relief to Haiti.
Sergeant (then MCpl) Mike Lehman, Tactical Aircraft Security
Officer, at the Toussaint Louverture International Airport in
Port au Prince, Haïti.
AF MP members began the year preparing for their numerous operational deployments, but no one was expecting the devastating earthquake that ravaged Haiti. Within a few days of the disaster, Canadian aircraft were flying much-needed supplies into Haiti and were bringing displaced persons back to Canada. Working jointly with the Op HESTIA Task Force MP members, AF MP members provided police and security support during the disaster relief operation. In addition, and in support of the Air Component Commander, AF MP TASOs provided the following specialized services: force protection, passenger and baggage screening, security and defence of transport aircraft, in flight and on the ground.
The Air Force Military Police and staff in the Air Force Provost Marshal office were extremely busy preparing for, and supporting, military operations during the 2010 Winter Olympics. Military Police were deployed over a three month period to several forward operating locations in the Vancouver area. While carrying out their normal police functions in coordination with municipal and federal police services, AF MP members performed their primary role in support of the Joint Force Provost Marshal and Air Component Commander during the Olympics and Paralympics, protecting personnel, equipment and aircraft involved in air transport, surveillance and air defence. Working with Wing Auxiliary Security Force (WASF) personnel, MP secured eight operational sites in support of Operation PODIUM and contributed significantly to overall mission success.
The AF provided an MP Captain and an MP Master Warrant Officer to the NATO Commander, Kandahar Airfield (COMKAF) Headquarters. Their MP and force protection (FP) duties ranged from overseeing FP infrastructure plans and commanding the International MP to being one of the Joint Defence Operations Centre Battle captains responsible for commanding FP and security response at KAF. These positions provided key expertise and leadership in facilitating a merge between International MP and United States Air Force Provost Marshal’s Office at KAF. The result was a larger, more diversified and more flexible International Security Assistance Force MP organization, that was better suited to respond to FP and law enforcement threats to the growing coalition population at KAF.
Air Force MP continued to perform security, policing and FP functions at Camp Mirage until the closeout in November, when MP were transferred with the Tactical Support Element to Germany. MP and TASOs continued to provide ground and in-flight security for CF aircraft and crew flying in the Afghanistan theatre of operations, ensuring the aircraft were properly secured during flights to remote airfields throughout the Afghanistan theatre of ops.
The Canadian Forces Air Marshal Detail (CFAMD) conducted twenty-nine very important person aircraft security missions in 2010, resulting in MP personnel travelling over 208 calendar days to 25 countries. The CFAMD provided close security support to 412, 429 and 437 Transport Squadrons while transporting Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and His Royal Highness Prince Philip; Her and His Excellency, the Governor Generals of Canada; the Prime Minister of Canada and various Heads of State.
In 2010, the AF MP members successfully provided a robust range of security and policing services to the AF and as part of joint MP operations. With continued emphasis on security required for the defence of Canada within NORAD, ongoing wing level services, deployed operations, humanitarian operations to Haiti, plus the domestic operations such as the Olympics and G8 and G20 Summits, the high operational tempo will continue into 2011, leading to the stand-up of the AF MP Group.
Operationally, 2010 was one of the busiest years for MP members posted to Land Force Command. In addition to providing the most significant contribution to date to Canada’s combat mission in Afghanistan (Op ATHENA), MP participated in hurricane recovery efforts in Newfoundland (Op LAMA), in humanitarian operations conducted in response to the earthquake in Haiti (Op HESTIA) and in security operations for the G8 and G20 Summits (Op CADENCE) as well as for the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games (Op PODIUM).
Master Corporal Maxime Bergeron (left), a Military Policeman from
51 Military Police Platoon, based in St. Hubert, Quebec, speaks with
a man in front of the Canadian Embassy in Port-au-Prince, Haiti during
Operation Hestia. (Photo by Master Corporal David Hardwick, CFJIC, Ottawa)
The year began with the eyes of Canada and the world on Vancouver, where one of the most complex and highly visible security operations ever mounted was taking place. MP played a key role in the RCMP-led Integrated Security Unit and helped ensure a safe and enjoyable atmosphere.
As Canada readied itself to welcome the world, Haiti experienced a devastating earthquake. Soldiers who had returned from Afghanistan just prior to Christmas were quickly called into service. The destruction was such that Regular and Reserve Force MP were required to assist in maintaining security operations for other government departments and non-governmental organizations as well as providing direct support to the CF on-scene commander.
The G8 and G20 Summits were next to pose a significant challenge to the MP. Members had to operate in two separate locations almost simultaneously in support of RCMP-led security operations which involved police from numerous jurisdictions. In consequence, MP were able to demonstrate their ability to adapt to complex situations.
Finally, on 20 September 2010, Hurricane Igor struck Newfoundland causing significant and widespread damage to infrastructure. This hampered the ability of Newfoundlanders to deal with the aftermath of the disaster. MP were en route within 24 hours of being notified and provided the necessary skill sets to support the task force commander’s mission.
When 2010 began, it was recognized that the scope and number of operations would push Army MP resources to the limit. The natural disasters that occurred during the year considerably increased the existing challenge. Notwithstanding the complexity of both anticipated and unforeseen operations, MP in multi-disciplinary, multijurisdictional, combined and joint operations both at home and around the world provided support as needed and participated effectively in all operations.
2010 was another busy year for the MP sections on both coasts as they continued to deliver superior policing and security support throughout the full spectrum of operations, both domestically and abroad.
In 2010, almost 30 percent of the Navy’s MP members went abroad in support of CF operations. Twenty-three members were deployed in support of the ongoing missions in Afghanistan, providing both policing and specialist training support and mentoring to the Afghan National Police. Likewise, Naval MP personnel continued to provide integral policing and force protection support for deployed naval assets most notably Op SAIPH, counterpiracy operations off the coast of Africa and Op HESTIA in Haiti.
In terms of domestic operations, 2010 was a very busy year as the Navy celebrated its centennial and Vancouver hosted the 2010 Winter Olympics. Among the myriad of events in the year-long celebration of the Naval Centennial was the International Fleet Review (IFR) held on both coasts in the summer which saw over 30 major foreign warships and submarines in attendance from nations around the world along with a concurrent visit from Her Royal Highness Queen Elizabeth II. Likewise, Op PODIUM saw a large contingent of MP deploy in support of Joint Task Force Games to work alongside their Army and Air Force counterparts in ensuring a safe and secure military contribution to the Vancouver 2010 Winter Games. MP personnel from Halifax also deployed in Nunavut for Op NANOOK and to Newfoundland in the wake of Hurricane Igor for Op LAMA.
Corporal Tyler Lang salutes the flag onboard Her Majesty’s Canadian
Ship (HMCS) Algonquin. - (Photo by CFB Esquimalt Base Imaging)
Despite high international and domestic operational tempo this past year, the MP sections on both coasts continued to provide a very high level of professional police and security services. Together, these sections responded to over 5000 calls, conducted over 500 security surveys and supported the visits of 46 foreign naval vessels in addition to the visit of those attending the IFR. The Military Police Working Dogs, a program begun in 2006, continued to be a valuable asset with over 250 deployments in support of both police operations and general deterrence patrols for local commanders. All of this while also providing personnel in support of multiple exercises such as Exercise SMOOTH RESPONSE and participating in community events such as the “Cops for Cancer Tour de Rock” bike tour and the 2nd Annual MP National Motorcycle Relay Ride in support of the Military Police Fund for Blind Children. Wherever the mission this past year, the contributions of every single MP member from the East and West Coasts led to the successful provision of police and security services to the Navy and the CF.
Crime Statistics for the Canadian Forces
2007 – 2010 Crime Trends for the Canadian Forces
This report examines all incidents that were reported to the MP over the last four years, regardless of the outcome of the investigation. The crime statistics published in this report are accurate on the day that they were produced. Due to ongoing police investigations and internal data quality control efforts, this information is subject to change, including addition, deletion and reclassification of any and all data. The 2009 figures have been adjusted to reflect these updates and may not match the figures in the 2009 Annual Report.
The crime statistics include all incidents which came to the attention of the MP, whether the MP or a civilian law enforcement agency was the lead investigating agency.
Crimes against the Person
Crimes against the person are summarized in the table below. “Criminal Code Causing Death” includes first and second degree murder, manslaughter, infanticide, and criminal negligence. “Death” includes any incident in which a CF member was killed, but does not include CF members killed in action. They are included under “Operations” in the “Other Investigations” table.
|Criminal Code Causing Death / Attempts||9||6||16||9|
|Abduction / Forcible Confinement||13||8||10||16|
“Arson”, “Break and Enter” and both theft items include all incidents involving both public and private property. “Fraud” includes fraudulent claims, credit cards, contracting and counterfeiting. “Mischief” includes damage to public and private property, obstructing police, mischief endangering life, trespassing, invasion of privacy, harassing telephone calls and mischief to data. “Other Property” refers to lost and recovered private and public property. The statistics for “Theft under $5,000”, “Mischief” and “Other Property” are relatively high as large volumes of equipment are issued to individuals by the CF or belong to the CF. Further, some items, such as lost ID cards, must be reported to the MP, before members can obtain a replacement or avoid administrative deductions from their wages.
|Break and Enter||138||130||157||136|
|Theft under $5,000||1389||1271||1413||1232|
|Theft over $5,000||77||78||64||65|
Other Criminal Code Offences
“Morals” includes luring a child with a computer, prostitution, child pornography, criminal harassment, threats and indecency. These types of offences are often determined through joint enforcement efforts by the MP with other law enforcement agencies. “Court” includes breach of probation, recognizance or undertaking, failing to appear, escape from custody and other offences against the administration of justice. “Weapons” includes firearms and explosives, improper storage or possession, using a firearm in an offence, pointing a firearm or trafficking weapons. “Motor Vehicle” includes all impaired driving or boating, including bodily harm and death; dangerous driving; driving while disqualified; refusals; failing to stop and traffic accidents. “Threats” includes criminal harassment, uttering threats or extortion. “Conduct” includes professional misconduct, neglect or negligence.
“Drugs” includes possession, trafficking or production of any illicit drug. See below for further details on drug offences. “NDA” (National Defence Act) includes all service offence investigations, which are also expanded upon below. “Operations” includes investigations pertaining to rules of engagement causing injury or death, or CF persons killed, wounded or missing in action. “Security” includes all security breaches or violations, and “Safety” includes bomb threats, fires or false alarms, suspicious packages, labour disputes and missing or injured persons. “Injury” includes traps intended to cause injury and criminal negligence causing bodily harm. “Other Acts” includes the Youth Criminal Justice Act, the Firearms Act as well as provincial traffic or liquor acts and visiting forces regulations.
|National Defence Act||553||632||787||788|
The table below shows the number and type of drug incidents in more detail. Drug use incidents have declined between 2007 and 2010; however, other drug offences have increased over the same period.
|Controlled Substance Use||71||47||37||24|
|Possession of Other Drugs||20||14||23||35|
|Possession of Cannabis||74||69||73||85|
|Traffic in other Drugs||15||9||11||22|
|Traffic in Cannabis||18||7||13||13|
|Importation of Drugs||2||0||1||2|
|Cultivation of Cannabis||3||3||7||5|
The following table lists incidents involving service offences. The statistics below include only those that were brought to the attention of the Military Police. Commanding officers have the prerogative to lay certain charges without the involvement of the MP; for example, conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline. “Offences against Authority or Justice” includes sedition, disobedience of a lawful command, violence to a superior or insubordination, as well as resisting or escaping from custody, detaining, withholding from a civil power, offences in relation to service tribunals and giving false evidence. Conduct other than drunkenness includes scandalous conduct by an officer, cruelty or disgraceful conduct, abuse of subordinates, false accusations, malingering and causing fires. “Pertaining to Aircraft/Vehicles/Ships” includes low flying, wrongful acts to aircraft and improper driving or use. “Other NDA” includes improper destruction or disposal, false information, negligent performance of duty, offences in relation to documents, handling dangerous substances and offences punishable by Canadian law.
|Offences against Authority or Justice||26||20||28||21|
|Quarrels and Disturbances||17||26||52||50|
|Conduct other than Drunkenness||11||21||27||20|
|False Statement / Absence Without Leave||84||107||69||81|
|Pertaining to Aircraft/Vehicles/Ships||16||13||70||12|
|Minor Conduct and Discipline||75||76||69||97|
The following table indicates the number of incidents which resulted in an MP report in SAMPIS. “Calls” reflects calls for service to an MP detachment that would typically result in the dispatch of a patrol car. “General Occurrences” are incidents that would typically result in a report being sent to a member’s commanding officer. “Tickets” are issued traffic and parking tickets that were recorded in SAMPIS; however, not all MP detachments use SAMPIS to record them. “Street Checks” are relatively minor incidents to which MP members attended but did not warrant the creation of a General Occurrence.
|Year||Calls||General Occurences||Tickets||Street Checks|
|2008||34 395||16 208||5 583||30 134|
|2009||36 029||17 227||6 862||29 456|
|2010||35 419||16 810||8 142||31 810|
|35 281||16 748||6 862||30 467|
This year marked a significant milestone in the department's Security Program with the establishment of the Director of Defence Security (DDS) organization. Formerly a secondary duty of the Deputy Provost Marshal Security (DPM Secur), the high-profile mandate of the DDS has become a Department of National Defence (DND) priority, resulting in strategic level support on security issues. The head of the DDS, the departmental Security Officer (DSO), is responsible to the VCDS and works closely with responsible authorities and various chains of command to develop the departmental security policy, to enforce security standards, to provide security awareness and education, and to ensure compliance through the conduct of security audits and evaluations. This transfer of responsibilities has allowed DPM Secur to focus on the renewal of its corporate and personnel security mandate in order to further enhance security within the department.
The Corporate Security Section is responsible for ensuring that the DND security policies and standards on security awareness and education, physical security, contract security and security incident management issues are adhered to and that they are in accordance with the policy on Government security and international agreements. It also develops, monitors and interprets departmental security policies, standards and procedures, and provides advice with regard to these to executives, managers and other security practitioners.
The section’s focus for 2010 was on the renewal of the Security Program, as directed by the VCDS. More specifically, staff worked on the development of an action plan that would include an assessment of physical security processes and policies and on the development of a program performance measurement framework.
Security Awareness and Education
In 2010, the Security Awareness and Education (SA&E) Section staff participated in several information sessions held by DND or in collaboration with other Government of Canada departments. In addition to these events, the SA&E Section was represented on a number of working groups and committees dedicated to the sharing of awareness strategies, techniques and information between subject matter experts from different areas of DND and other federal departments. The aim of this collaboration is the development of a comprehensive government security awareness strategy and the tools to implement this strategy.
Other accomplishments in 2010 include the creation of several new security bulletins, factsheets, a yearly calendar with pertinent security information and a very popular booklet on safeguarding information.
The DPM Secur Contract Security Section provides advice and guidance on the use of the Security Requirements Checklist (SRCL), is the departmental signing authority for the SRCL and coordinates the Visit Clearance Request (VCR) program. In 2010, the Contract Security Section processed 508 SRCLs, 45 memoranda of understanding and 2880 VCRs. These requests were processed for the following categories: industry to DND, DND to industry, other government departments to DND and temporary help. In addition to these core activities, the Contract Security Section provided numerous briefings to various units, such as CEFCOM and Defence Construction Canada, and at different events, such as the Information Assurance Conference.
The Personnel Security Section assists CF recruiting centres and hiring units across Canada in achieving reliability screenings by providing the results of credit checks, criminal records name checks and fingerprint verifications. In addition, the Personnel Security Section provides guidance to hiring authorities on the adjudication of information to assist in reaching a reliability determination. With respect to security clearances, for which the Canadian Security Intelligence Service provides loyalty assessments, the Personnel Security Section issues national level security clearances for all CF/DND personnel.
Corporal Vince Bacon from the Canadian Forces Support Unit (Ottawa)
Military Police,looks at fingerprints with Catherine Vieau of the
Forensic Fingerprint section within the Identification cell at National
Defence Headquarters on 28 October 28, 2010.
(Photo by Master-Corporal Ian Tait, Defence Public Affairs Learning Centre)
Over the past year, the Personnel Security Section strove to improve standards, including streamlining processes and ensuring a commitment to a more robust security program while improving overall timelines. This effort will continue over the coming year via staffing growth, policy renewal and the redefinition of the role of the Personnel Security Section as it relates to the investigation of security concern issues. The goal is to improve effectiveness while ensuring operational needs are met and risk is effectively managed. In 2010, 41,000 reliability screening and security clearance requests were received and processed.
Individual Training and Education
Deputy Provost Marshal Individual Training and Education (DPM IT&E) is responsible for coordinating the CFPM’s Designated Training Authority functions in support of MP recruitment, selection, training, education and retention. DPM IT&E also provides technical supervision of the CFMPA in its delivery of MP occupational and specialist training, and coordinates MP Branch “out-service training” requirements at various civilian training venues.
Coporal Daniel Avon briefing the Honourable Peter MacKay, Minister of
National Defence on his responsibilities when investigating a traffic
accident at a demonstration at the Canadian Forces Military Police
Academy in August 2010.
Following CF objectives, DPM IT&E is committed to promoting a continuous learning environment for MP members, with a view to imparting knowledge and developing skills and attitudes that enhance mental agility, innovation and judgement. The following four pillars form the basis of professional development in the CF and the MP:
- Education allows for a reasoned response to an unpredictable situation (knowledge and intellectual skills to correctly interpret information and exercise sound judgement). The cognitive ability to reason, acquired through academic education and practice, enables individuals to analyze a problem and formulate a reasonable solution.
- Training is a learned response to a predictable situation (skills and knowledge to perform specific duties and tasks).
- Employment Experience is the practical application of acquired skills and knowledge. Training and education are reinforced by job experience.
- Self-Development is taking personal responsibility for one's own professional development through assessment, reflection and action. It may take the form of education, training or experience and differs from conventional learning in that it is based on the self-motivation of each officer / non-commissioned member.
Military Police Recruiting and Selection
The MP Branch uses assessment centres to select suitable personnel for the MP and MP Officer occupations as well as specialist/high-risk employment such as Close Protection (CP). The Military Police and Military Police Officer Assessment Centres (MPAC/MPOAC) as well as Close Protection Assessment Centres (CPAC) use competency-based systems designed to identify behaviours relevant to the abilities, skills and personal qualities critical to success on the job. Assessment centres vary in length and content, but generally last approximately three days and involve interviews, scenarios, and assessment boards. These assessment centres continue to serve as a cost-effective method of selecting suitable personnel and contribute to reducing attrition rates. Staffed by MP, MPOs and Personnel Selection Officers (PSO), the centres are convened several times each year in a variety of locations across the country. In 2010, 11 MPACs and 1 MPOAC were held in Barrie (Ontario) and Borden (Ontario), processing 301 non-commissioned and 21 officer candidates. Two hundred and thirty one non-commissioned candidates (77%) were found suitable for employment in the MP occupation. Sixteen (76%) were found suitable for employment in the Military Police Officer occupation. Suitable candidates are offered positions as they become available.
Careful selection is particularly important for more high-risk employment such as Close Protection. Two CPACs were convened during 2010 and were held in Victoria (BC) on the grounds of CFB Albert Head. A total of 80 members were screened. Fifty-six members (70%) were found suitable for CP training.
Reserve Military Police Training
Due to a growing requirement for the Army Reserve Military Police elements to be capable of the full spectrum of MP tasks for their role within the Army Reserve Force on Domestic Operations, a new Reserve MP Qualification Level 3 (QL3) and Military Police Officers Course (MPOC) have been developed. These new courses incorporate the same content as the Regular Force MP courses. However, due to the length of the Regular Force courses, the reserve versions have been designed to run over a longer period and include a phased approach incorporating distance learning portions. The first of the new QL3 courses commenced on 1 November 2010. The first new MPOC will commence on 1 November 2011. The QL5, 6A and 6B courses will now be available to all members who achieve the required prerequisites.
Delegated Training Authority Function
The DPM IT&E team, along with its full-time training development officer, have been updating various training documents and planning for next year’s required qualification standard boards. This year, MP members from various ranks and experience took part in a week-long occupational specification review. The document, which was in need of updating, details core MP duties as well as tasks performed by both Regular and Reserve MP members. The MPO occupational specification will be reviewed in early 2011. It is expected that the Director Personnel Generation Requirement will approve and lead an extensive MPO occupation analysis.
In policing the DND/CF, the Military Police play an important and unique role and it is essential that it maintains a reputation for professionalism and excellence within DND/CF and the general public. To assist in assuring that Military Police members, who have been given special authority under Section 156 of the NDA and peace officer powers under Section 2 of the Criminal Code, exercise their authority professionally and in accordance with policy, the Professional Standards (PS) Directorate was created.
The Professional Standards directorate is the Military Police equivalent of the internal affairs or citizen complaints bureau of most civilian police agencies in Canada. The directorate employs only experienced Military Police and DND civilian personnel and is divided into three sections: Professional Standards Investigations, Professional Standards Evaluations and Professional Standards Credentials Review.
Section 250 of the NDA provides that anyone may make a public complaint against a member of the Military Police including the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service (CFNIS) in relation to a policing duty or function. The Professional Standards Investigations Section, on behalf of the CFPM, is responsible to investigate “conduct complaints” in accordance with the procedures outlined in Section 250. In addition, the section may investigate alleged breaches of the Military Police Professional Code of Conduct (MPPCC) or policies, normally identified by the member’s chain of command. This type of complaint is called a “standards complaint”. The Section reviewed/investigated 44 complaints (35 conduct complaints and 9 standards complaints) in 2010.
The CFPM is responsible for the functions of law enforcement, conventional security and custodial services provided by all Military Police (including the CFNIS) personnel. With this responsibility comes the requirement to provide policy on these issues to ensure that these duties are carried out in a professional and consistent manner. To assist in ensuring that these policies are being fulfilled, the CFPM has developed evaluation programs: self-evaluations, strategic evaluations, focused evaluations and functional reviews.
Each year, all Military Police and CFNIS detachments conduct a self-evaluation of their law enforcement, conventional security and custodial service functions using a comprehensive checklist. This evaluation verifies a number of risk areas such as: exhibit and evidence handling, interviewing and interrogation techniques, note taking, the application of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, victim assistance and client satisfaction. The results of these self-evaluations are forwarded to the PS Directorate for review.
To further ensure compliance to policies, all detachments are subjected to a comprehensive strategic evaluation conducted by members of the Professional Standards Strategic Evaluation team. These strategic evaluations are conducted on a three-year cycle. Military Police and CFNIS detachments must correct any shortcomings identified in the strategic evaluation before the CFPM accredits the unit to continue with its policing mandate. The Professional Standards Evaluation team also conducts in-depth reviews (focused evaluations and functional reviews) of specific MP functions or issues of concern, to confirm the adequacy of the present policy or the need to amend/develop new policies to meet a new challenge. In 2010, the PS Evaluations Section conducted fourteen strategic evaluations of MP/CFNIS detachments and four focused evaluations.
Military Police Credentials Review Board
The Military Police Credentials Review Board (MPCRB) examines files where alleged serious breaches of the MPPCC are substantiated by Professional Standards investigations to determine the member’s continued suitability maintain special appointment under Section 156 of the NDA. An administrative tribunal consisting of military and civilian police and career administration officers, the MPCRB makes recommendations to the CFPM concerning the suitability of a member to remain employed in a Military Police role. In 2010, four MPCRBs were convened.
Deputy Provost Marshal Resource Management (DPM RM) provides the CFPM organization and the CF MP Gp with corporate support services in the areas of comptrollership, civilian and military personnel administration and staffing, and equipment evaluation and acquisition. The DPM RM directorate also compiles the annual CFPM business plan, identifying the short- and long-term objectives of the organization and all associated resource requirements, and assists in coordinating memoranda of understanding (MOU) with other government departments and police agencies for the provision of specific services and establishment of secondments and/or exchanges at the federal, provincial and municipal levels.
DPM RM facilitates the procurement of high-value police and training equipment for CF MP Gp units and coordinates national-level MP Branch procurement programs in conjunction with the Assistant Deputy Minister (Material) Group. In 2010, DPM RM coordinated the final procurement of the second and final batch of 219 Colt Canada C8A3 carbines in support of the MP Immediate Action / Rapid Deployment (IARD) program. In addition, the final distribution of tactical accessories for the C8A3 carbines to MP units was completed and will facilitate the implementation of the IARD program. In a related project, DPM RM finalized the second phase test and evaluation program to select a suitable weapon vault and rack for securely mounting C8A3 carbines in MP vehicles.
DPM RM staff continued to coordinate MP Branch input into the Army’s Small Arms Modernization (SAM) Project. As one of its stated aims, the SAM project will address a new family of MP pistols. The SAM project is one of three projects that stem from the initial Small Arms Replacement Project II. To date, the SAM project team has engaged the MP Branch and has demonstrated interest toward identifying requirements that are compatible with unique MP specific tasks. The SAM project is expected to deliver approximately 2000 pistols and tactical accessories for use by all Regular and Reserve Force MP members within the next four years.
In 2010, DPM RM staff also provided assistance in several other large equipment modernization and recapitalization projects, including:
- Acquisition of two new MP vehicles and equipping a total of six vehicles in support of training at the CFMPA; and
- Several increases to the MP clothing scale of issue to include ballistic eyewear and operational patrol dress black undershirts.
Due to ongoing CF-wide financial adjustments in fiscal year 2010/11, the CFPM’s operation and maintenance budget was affected. These adjustments will continue to have an impact on non-essential temporary duty travel, professional development activities and availability to discretionary funding for DPM RM initiated projects.
Canadian Forces Military Police Group
Students of the Canadian Forces Military Police Academy, wearing
protective masks and gear, undergo Immediate Action Rapid
Deployment training in a simulated environment.
Canadian Forces Military Police Academy
The role of the CFMPA is to conduct basic, advanced and specialist Military Police and security training in accordance with approved doctrine and standards.
In 2010, the CFMPA conducted the following courses:
- Regular Force (Reg F) QL3 courses;
- Reg F QL5A courses;
- Reg F QL6A courses;
- one Reg F QL6B course;
- Reg F Use of Force Instructor (UOFI) Re-Certification courses ; and
- Military Police Investigation.
In addition, the CFMPA supported the Land Force to conduct the following courses:
- one Reserve Force (Res F) QL3 course graduating 25 personnel;
- two Res F QL5A courses graduating 25 personnel;
- one Res F QL6A course graduating 21 personnel; and
- one Res MPOC course graduating 4 personnel.
In August 2010, QL3 Course Serial 0065 commenced with a modified curriculum. Upon completion of this course on February 9, 2011 and all subsequent courses, students will graduate qualified in IARD, Emergency Medical Response Training and Driver Judgement Training (including stationary radar).
In October 2010, CFMPA initiated the UOFI Re-Certification course. The intent is to re-qualify a maximum of three UOFIs during every QL3 course and MPOC with a view to provide commanders more flexibility to train candidates throughout the year.
In November 2010, the new Res F QL3 course began with thirty-one students via Distributed Learning (DL). The training will be conducted over two years: phases I and III through DL from September to May at unit and phases II and IV from June to August at CFMPA.
Canadian Forces National Investigation Service
Headquartered in Ottawa with regional detachments across Canada and in Afghanistan, the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service (CFNIS) is an independent Military Police unit mandated to investigate criminal and service offences that are deemed to be of a serious or sensitive nature. In addition to independent investigation services, the CFNIS continues to provide specialized support elements such as surveillance, polygraph, drug enforcement and criminal intelligence. Of the approximate 120 CFNIS investigators, several are employed within the major crime units of other Canadian police agencies, one is part of the Alberta Serious Incident Response Team and, along with personnel from RCMP ‘A’ Division and the Ottawa Police Service, a four-man team is assigned to the Integrated Technological Crime Unit.
In 2010, almost one quarter of CFNIS personnel were deployed to support overseas’ operations, which included sustaining the high operational tempo in Afghanistan as well as supporting Op HESTIA and the related relief efforts in Haiti. Investigations during operations predominantly involve applications of the rules of engagement and escalations of use of force. (Incidents of this nature are always investigated by the CFNIS to ensure that there is an independent assessment of Canadian actions in theatres of operations.) One of these deployed members, who is employed within the Multi-Disciplinary Exploitation Capability in Afghanistan, is actively involved in counter-IED activities that aim to reduce risks for Canadian troops and to enhance their force protection.
The CFNIS conducted many high-profile investigations in 2010, most notably the investigation that led to twelve CF members being charged with drug-related offences by the CFNIS’ National Drug Enforcement Team. This particular investigation constitutes an excellent example of the interagency cooperation that exists between the CFNIS and other policing agencies, in this case the RCMP and the Military Police Detachment at CFB Wainwright.
The exemplary work of CFNIS investigators was recognized throughout the year not only in the numerous appreciation letters from organizations within the CF and other policing agencies, but also in highly coveted distinctions including the Chief of the Defence Staff Commendation, Chief of the Defence Staff coin, Ontario Provincial Police Commendation, Military Police Senior Non-Commissioned Officer of the Year and many Commanding Officer’s Commendations / Certificates of Appreciation.
The Canadian Forces Service Prison and Detention Barracks
(CFSPDB) is located in Edmonton, Alberta and is the Canadian Forces’ only permanently established military detention facility. The role of the CFSPDB is to provide prison and detention facilities for CF service detainees and service prisoners; adjust detainees and prisoners to service discipline, and prepare them to resume an effective role in the CF; return detainees and prisoners to civilian life, where ppropriate, with improved attitude and motivation; and provide subject matter expertise and guidance in support of CF disciplinary programmes and deployed prisoner of war/detainee operations.
Sample layout at the Canadian Forces Service Prison and Detention Barracks.
There were 30 admissions to the CFSPDB in 2010; one of whom was a repeat offender. The majority of those admitted to the CFSPDB in 2010 were sentenced to detention (25) for disciplinary offences such as “absent without authority”, “disobedience of a lawful command”, “quarrels and disturbances”, “drunkenness”, and “conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline”. Five CF members were sentenced to imprisonment for more serious criminal charges of “sexual interference”, “sexual touching”, “negligent performance of a military duty”, “trafficking” in narcotics, and “stealing when entrusted by reason of employment”. In 2010, one service inmate was transferred to civil custody in accordance with Section 220 of the National Defence Act.
The CFSPDB is the CF Centre of Excellence for detention and custody training. In this role, the CFSPDB is responsible to conduct the national Detention Custodian course on behalf of the Canadian Defence Academy. This course provides new custodians with the necessary skills and knowledge to enable them to carry out custodial duties relating to the persons undergoing detention or imprisonment. In 2010, the CFSPDB conducted two Detention Custodian courses, training a total of 48 new custodians from all across the CF.
As part of its expanded mandate, including detention and custody oversight and training of CF personnel for international operations, CFSPDB training staff also taught two five-day Operational Detainee Handling courses, training over 45 CF personnel in preparation for their deployment on international operations.
Military Police Security Service
The role of the Military Police Security Service (MPSS) is to provide security services to specific Canadian foreign missions and related properties under the direction of the appropriate head of mission. These services include, but are not limited to, the protection of classified and administratively controlled material, equipment, personnel and property, within the confines of Canadian missions. The performance of these duties will include the execution of instructions for the protection of Canadian foreign missions and their personnel in emergencies.
The MPSS mission statement is: “to contribute to the safety and security of Canadian foreign missions, related properties and mission personnel by providing professional and effective security services to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.”
The MPSS has 106 MP members, with a headquarters consisting of a commanding officer (major), a deputy commanding officer (captain), a unit sergeant-major (master warrant officer), an operations warrant officer and two operation support non-commissioned members (master corporal and corporal). MPSS detachments are established in forty-nine . Canadian foreign missions (high commissions / embassies / consulates): Abidjan, Abuja, Accra, Algiers, Amman, Ankara, Athens, Bangkok, Beijing, Beirut, Belgrade, Berlin, Brasilia, Bogotá, Brussels, Cairo, Caracas, Colombo, Damascus, Dhaka, Guatemala, Havana, Islamabad, Jakarta, Kabul, Kiev, Kinshasa, Lagos, Lima, London, Manila, Mexico, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, New York, Paris, Port-au-Prince, Pretoria, Rabat, Ramallah, Riyadh, Rome, Tehran, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Vienna and Washington.
At the request of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, the unit has increased in size over the past few years. MPSS will continue to grow by nine positions over the next couple of years. At the completion of this growth cycle, the unit personnel strength will be 115 MP members.
Military Police Support to Operational Commands
There have been great moments of cooperation and coordination throughout the year amongst the MP staffs in Canada Command (Canada COM), the Canadian Expeditionary Force Command (CEFCOM), the Canadian Operational Support Command (CANOSCOM) and the Canadian Special Operations Force Command (CANSOFCOM). In the end, it is important to capture and remember the lessons of 2010 in order to support and inform the MP command and control transformation efforts that will unfold during 2011 and 2012.
During 2009 there was much planning and training to weather the perfect storm of operational requirements in 2010 associated with supporting the Vancouver Olympics (OP PODIUM) and ongoing operations in Afghanistan. Additionally, work had commenced to close the mission in Afghanistan in 2011. As things turned out, our understanding of “challenging” was broadened when Canada rose to support operations in Haiti on the heels of the earthquake that ravaged the country. The MP Branch rallied and provided approximately 80 additional MP members to support the relief efforts, for a combined total of 265 deployed MP members.
LCdr, (now Cdr) Lucie Tremblay, Joint Task Force Games Provost Marshal,
speaks with MCpl Patrick Angers, a Military Police Investigator during
Operation Podium. Operation PODIUM is the Canadian Forces (CF) contribution
to the overall security of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter
Games in support of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)-led Integrated
Security Unit. With air, land and sea capabilities, the CF will help the RCMP
maintain security zones around Olympic venues and will help monitor the air,
land and sea approaches to Canada’s west coast
Canadian Operational Support Commands
The Operational Support Military Police Group (OS MP Gp) is a specialist MP formation that commands the Canadian Forces Protective Services Unit (CFPSU) and provides subject matter expertise and advice as part of the overall CANOSCOM team. For police duties and functions, the OS MP Gp commander takes policing direction from the CFPM and is responsible for technical oversight of police capability for operations along the CANOSCOM strategic lines of communication, such as third-location decompression, intermediate staging bases/teams, and national police support operations (Olympics). During 2010, OS MP Gp was responsible for oversight of MP operations in such diverse locations as Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Germany and downtown Vancouver.
From a staff perspective, the raison d’être of the OS MP Gp parallels that of CANOSCOM which exists, first and foremost, to support all CF domestic, continental and international operations. Working in partnership with CEFCOM, Canada COM, and CANOSCOM itself, the OS MP Gp generates task-tailored operational support MP capability (police and security, related) for named operations worldwide. The OS MP is heavily involved with planning and coordination at the joint operational level in order to integrate MP functions with the full range of combat support and combat service support capabilities. Because there does not exist a standing MP capability to deploy, close cooperation with MP Provost Marshal counterparts has been essential to force generate MP from the primary force generators in the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Operations are synchronised across the MP Branch through monthly coordination meetings that aim to balance base-, wing- and garrison-level requirements with deployed operations.
2010 has been a high-water mark for deployed operations; and force generators have been very challenged to support all of the requests for MP participation. The first quarter of 2010 had approximately 265 members deployed on three separate missions in Canada, Haiti and Afghanistan.
Looking to the Future – 2011 and MP Command and Control Transformation
As OS MP Gp looks to the future in 2011, the Command is poised to grow into the Military Police Services Group (MP Svcs Gp) and assume command of the line units of MPSS and CFSPDB, in addition to the CFPSU. The CFPSU will also see their new facility constructed by spring 2011, and all indications are that demand for CP operatives will continue to grow. Moreover, MP transformation will likely see the OS MP Gp / MP Svcs Gp absorb the MP members in CEFCOM and Canada COM and the MP Svcs Gp Headquarters will receive additional (non-MP) expertise to appropriately support the MP complement to any joint, deployed operation. 2011 will be a year of great change and opportunity to further enhance the MP operational support capability to the Canadian Forces.
Governmental emphasis on the Canada First Defence Strategy and the “no fail” home mission has been mirrored in the Military Police Branch emphasis on timely, professional support to Canada Command operations. Canada Command, and by extension the Military Police Branch, extremely busy in 2010 with respect to domestic operations including:
- Operation PODIUM, CF support to the Vancouver 2010 Olympics. Over 100 MP personnel were deployed to the Joint Operations Area (lower mainland British Columbia). Military Police provided police, security and mobility support to what has been cited as the largest single CF domestic operation ever;
- Operation CADENCE, CF support to the G8 and G20 Summits held in Huntsville and Toronto. Numerous Ontario organizations provided police, security and force protection support to deployed forces;
- Operation NANOOK, a joint sovereignty operation held in the Eastern Arctic that provided police and security support;
- Operation POSEIDON, CF assistance to the Canadian Canada Border Services Agency as a vessel suspected of human smuggling was moored at CF docks in Esquimalt. Active involvement of MP members was required in providing police and security support and coordination; and
- Operation LAMA, CF response to a request for assistance with regard to flooding in Newfoundland. MP members had to deploy on very short notice to provide traffic control for the movement and emplacement of a military bridging system in order to restore the only link to several isolated communities.
Corporal Dwayne Hunter, Sergeant George Prudencio and Corporal Selena
McLeod from 3 Area Support Group, CFB Gagetown, confer on security as
vehicles from 4 Engineer Support Regiment and military members form a
convoy of military vehicles after departing the Joseph and Clara
Smallwood ferry at Argentia Newfoundland during the military response
after Hurricane Igor.
(Photo by WO Jerry Kean, LFAA Public Affairs)
During 2010 Canada Command began the process for introduction of new, more comprehensive, Force Protection (FP) levels and measures for domestic implementation. Military Police being a vital component of the effective FP of DND/CF personnel, materiel, facilities, information and activities within Canada Command’s (Canada COM) area of responsibility (AOR), were heavily involved in the shaping and design of this vital program.
Canadian Expeditionary Force Command
This year marks the 5th anniversary of the CEFCOM’s stand-up as the operational command responsible for all CF international operations, with the exception of operations conducted solely by special operations forces elements. CEFCOM merges maritime, land and air force assets under one operational command in order to conduct international humanitarian, peace support or combat operations. Military Police from all the environments support CEFCOM through two main roles: police the force and police support to the mission. They are deployed worldwide and, in some cases, under very austere conditions, conducting a wide variety of activities such as law enforcement operations, security operations, custody operations, force protection operations, tactical support operations, and stability operations.
Master Warrant Officer Bernard Dudka assisting a child with
making a kite at the Kandahar Airfield bazaar for children.
2010 started with the unexpected deployment of Military Police as part of Op HESTIA to support Haiti after a massive earthquake devastated the country. A variety of MP organizations with environmental specialist capabilities - airfield security, FP of naval assets and security support to other government departments in Haiti - rapidly deployed in support of the humanitarian operation.
Military Police continued to deploy to Afghanistan in support of the International Security Assistance Force. The Task Force Commander is supported with a highly trained means to oversee the maintenance of good order and discipline where skilled MP members complete all assigned tasks under harsh conditions in a high-threat area. As stated by the Roto 9 MP Company Commanding Officer:
“All of the soldiers, sailors and air men/women of the MP Coy have contributed greatly to the overall success of this Coy. Their hard work has contributed to the Canadian mission in Afghanistan on every line of task that has been asked of them.”
Although the nearly twenty CF and UN international missions, such as those occurring in the Middle East or Africa, operate without a full-time MP presence, ongoing force protection and security support is provided via staff inspection visits, advice to mission staff, and technical expertise to ensure the safety and security of Canadian Forces personnel and assets.
Regardless of their environmental affiliation, Military Police have distinguished themselves through their high degree of training and professionalism as being able to work effectively in any joint area of operations. Whether investigating crimes in Afghanistan, providing aircraft security under demanding conditions in Haiti or providing security to CF warships off the coast of Africa, the Military Police have continued to deploy internationally in very large numbers to ensure mission success and are value-added assets to commanders who continually commend their expertise and advice.
Canadian Special Operations Force Command
Direct MP support to Special Operations Forces’ (SOF) operations and units is rare among the armies of the world, and the CF MP is well placed to add value to SOF operations in Canada and in missions abroad. Aside from the Provost Marshal, robust and versatile MP support for the command is also embedded within the formation at the Dwyer Hill Training Centre (DHTC), the Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR) and the Canadian Joint Incident Response Unit (CJIRU). In those locations that do not have organic MP support, the command has strived to work closely with the local MP advisors and sister units to achieve common intent and uniform levels of support.
Dwyer Hill Training Centre
“To provide police and security services to DHTC, to protect its personnel and resources from criminal activity, detect and report crime, and respond to emerging needs as operations and the unit dictate.”
Members of DHTC are subject to the Code of Service Discipline and, therefore, MP exercise full peace officer status when dealing with a member of this unit. The unique role of DHTC however, requires that MP responses and reporting be handled with due attention to operational security. The DHTC MP Troop (Tp) jurisdiction extends to all members whether in garrison, during deployment or off-duty.
The DHTC MP Tp works in a similar fashion as other MP detachments across Canada, in that it is responsible for policing and security within its area of responsibility. When assets are housed within the confines of other bases, DHTC MP Tp works in close cooperation with the local MP detachment to ensure that all security and policing aspects are addressed.
Canadian Special Operations Regiment
Upon arrival at CSOR, all MP members undergo the Special Operations Support Orientation course. This course prepares support personnel for their duties as a member of CSOR and ensures a heightened level of deployment readiness. CSOR MP are equipped and trained for all environments and missions, so that they may deploy with little need for additional training and on very short notice. CSOR members can also take advantage of local training opportunities that create a more flexible Special Operations Force. As such, CSOR MP members have deployed with the Regiment both domestically for training and operationally as part of a special operations task force.
During the past year, the CSOR MP Section has advised on the physical expansion of the Regiment. New buildings with specific requirements are being constructed, and the MP Section has been instrumental in this activity. On a daily basis, the CSOR MP members deal with a variety of tasks and issues. They are frequently called upon to provide escorts, give operational security and security briefings, conduct venue security, liaise with other agencies regarding unit activities and aggressively market the capabilities of the MP Branch.
Canadian Joint Incident Response Unit
This unit, which will be formed in 2011, will assist CJIRU in its domestic operations, training and tasks, in a means akin to that support provided by the CSOR MP Section.
Military Police are inevitably involved in development and maintenance of good community relations, in each unit’s respective community, though there are also annual events in which many MP participate. It is in keeping with the spirit of service and protection, under which police services fall. Participating in community events, both in or out of uniform, fosters trust and increases visibility, so that community members may be more willing to participate in crime prevention or reporting processes.
After their return from Afghanistan, members of 13 MP Platoon
based in Winnipeg, were invited to the Manitoba Legislature in
The Second Annual Military Police Motorcycle Relay Ride was held
from 17 August to 10 September 2010 from Comox, British-Columbia,
to St. John’s, Newfoundland, and raised more than $38 000 for the
Military Police Fund for Blind Children and Wounded Warrior. Some
riders joined partway, while others, pictured here in St. John’s
in September 2010, rode the entire way.
From left to right, Major Bob Edwards, Mrs. Norma Edwards, Warrant
Officer Andy Stewart, Mrs. Betty Calder, Mr. Greg MacIntosh and Mr. Joe
Hebert, and missing in the picture is Chief Warrant Officer Rick Day.
Print titled “Departure” by Silvia Pecota, used with permission from
the artist. The print was created to represent the Military Police in
Afghanistan, and is dedicated to the memory of Corporals Randy Payne
and Matthew Dinning, killed in action in April 2006.